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We define sea ice extent as the area of all grid cells in the subdomain where concentration exceeds a 30% threshold (below this concentration polar bear foraging efficiency is known to treatment narcolepsy order primaquine 15mg line be poor) symptoms 0f ms cheap 15 mg primaquine overnight delivery. The ice-free season length is the continuous period in summer that meets the icefree definition medications via g tube purchase 15 mg primaquine otc. Ice-free season lengths were computed for the oceanic region adjacent to medications on carry on luggage 15mg primaquine visa the arctic coastline of Alaska that is occupied by two polar bear subpopulations identified by region, specifically the Southern Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea (see Amstrup et al. The ice-free season lengths were initially computed separately for the two subpopulations. Results for the two subpopulations are an additional ice-free day in the Chukchi Sea region per 8. Finally, the quantities for these two subpopulations were combined in a weighted arithmetic mean, where the weights are the relative areal proportion of the regions, giving a single estimate for the two subpopulations that occupy coastal Alaska. I am submitting this declaration on behalf of myself and the Center for Biological Diversity (the Center). I was hired by the Center in October 2005 and I work at the Center as the Public Lands Desert Director and as a senior scientist. I rely upon the Center to represent my interests in protecting endangered species and their habitat. I have a Master of Science in Biology from the California State University at Northridge. I personally have researched, surveyed for, studied, observed, and sought protection for many imperiled species, both plant and animal. From 1995-2005, I also worked as an independent botanical consultant throughout the southwestern U. I keep up to date on the latest information regarding the locations and status of the aforementioned species as part of my active participation in their conservation. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel, California Department of Fish and Wildlife personnel and leading species experts on contemporary issues pertaining to these species. I have made this a habit since I started working on behalf of endangered species conservation. I am also aware that the Rollback Rule will increase other air pollution as well, such as sulfur pollution, and will result in billions of tons of increased greenhouse gas pollution, worsening climate change. I have an ongoing interest in protecting the imperiled species impacted by the Rollback Rule. The habitats of species such as the San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, the coastal California gnatcatcher, and the Mojave desert tortoise, which I care deeply about, are affected by the types of air pollution that vehicles emit. In 2012, I was delighted to read that the car and light truck fuel efficiency standards were to be ramped up to achieve greater efficiency, which would reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. One of the reasons I was so encouraged by this news was because of the air pollution reductions, which would decrease the amount of nitrogen deposition that is occurring in our natural landscapes. The Rollback Rule reverses that progress, adding thousands of tons of additional nitrogen pollution to the air and increasing the stress on these species. The scientific literature has documented through numerous studies that nitrogen compounds from air pollution, known to be emitted from vehicles, are blown by prevailing winds. For example, in southern California where I live and work, the nitrogen deposition gradient affecting plant communities stretches over 200 miles (Allen et al. The deposition of nitrogen compounds onto natural landscapes and increases the amount of nitrogen available to plants but also kills beneficial soil organisms known as cryptobiotic soils (Egerton-Warburton and Allen 2000). Available nitrogen is usually a very limited nutrient for plants yet is essential for plant growth. Many native plants evolved with mutualistic soil bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, known collectively as cryptobiotic soils, which break down the nitrogen (N2) molecule, readily available in the air, into a useable form of nitrogen that the native plants can use. In return, the cryptobiotic soils receive carbohydrates produced by the native plants via photosynthesis. The altered nitrogen cycle results in better conditions for non-native invasive plant species to grow over natives, and non-natives are able to outcompete natives and become the dominant plants. Increasing nitrogen deposition has caused explosive growth of these grasses, which include cheat grass (Bromus tectorum), red brome (Bromus madritensis ssp.

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Of all runners medications 5 rights discount primaquine 15 mg fast delivery, middle-distance specialists require the greatest degree of tactical intelligence and instantaneous decision-making as they consider their position in the pack and the length and timing of an accelerating burst symptoms rotator cuff tear purchase primaquine 15mg on line. Middle-distance events are not long enough to medicine you can give cats buy discount primaquine 15mg on line challenge the normal glycogen stores of a well-trained athlete medications hyperthyroidism primaquine 15mg visa. However, with athletes competing up to 15 to 20 times over a season, especially on the European and international circuits, where mid-week competitions can entice runners to compete three times in a fortnight, recovery of glycogen stores between races becomes an important issue. Middle-distance running requires a high rate of energy turnover from all energy systems; for example, at the extreme of middle distances, elite 5000-m runners run at a pace close to their maximum aerobic capacity for ~13 min, while a 1500-m runner will work at more than 110 per cent of that capacity for ~4 min. Training and nutritional strategies can help athletes increase their capacity to buffer this acidity. Physical characteristics the physical characteristics of a middle-distance runner are similar to those of a long-distance runner-indeed, many of the top distance runners are former middle-distance runners who increased their competition distance. However, because middle-distance runners are not required to transport their body weight so far, being slightly heavier, particularly in terms of height, carries less of a penalty. In fact, middle-distance runners tend to be taller than their long-distance counterparts-longer legs assist with the stride length needed for speed. Common nutritional issues Many of the nutritional issues of middle distance running are similar to those of long-distance running, and only the differences will be discussed in this chapter. You should read the previous chapter carefully, and note especially the first seven sections, on training diet and race preparation, as well as the first two profiles. The nutritional concerns peculiar to middle-distance runners are summarised below. The profile of Jason below explores the issue of gastrointestinal upsets during running-a common concern in both middle- and long-distance running. Periodisation of eating the training programs undertaken by serious middle-distance runners need to develop all muscle energy systems to a high level. The energy and fuel requirements of these different phases and sessions of a training program are quite varied. Ultimately, the runner needs to treat these differently in terms of dietary practices. This means increasing total carbohydrate and energy intake during times of high-volume training, and decreasing intake when volume and intensity are reduced. The bottom line is that middle-distance runners need to have a flexible eating plan that is in tune with their training and their competition goals. Race preparation Middle-distance runners do not need to carbohydrate-load for competition, since their normal glycogen stores will be more than adequate to see them through a single race. With a sensible focus on carbohydrate foods in combination with rest or tapered training over the final 24­36 hours, a middle-distance runner should be sufficiently fuelled for the event. However, there may be situations in which postrace recovery will overlap with preparation for the next event. Young athletes in particular who have several races over a 1­2-day program may need to increase their carbohydrate intake above normal during this period and make an extra effort to fuel up in advance. Similarly, athletes who have spread-out heats (and semis) over a longer program, or who are racing on a circuit every couple of days, will need to be organised with post-race refuelling and recovery. Chapter 5 discusses the benefits of speedy intake of carbohydrate and protein after a hard session such as a middle-distance race. A breakfast or brunch-type meal will be suitable for events held early in the day. If you are running in an evening race, you might like to continue your normal meal plans until lunch and then finish with a light pre-race meal or snack. Buffering for race performance Racing over middle distances hurts in a special way. Theoretically, highintensity exercise could continue for longer if there were some way to neutralise this acid build-up. But as explained in Chapter 6, there are several ways in which you can help this process along.

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Games are played in two halves of 45 min (soccer) and 35 min (hockey) treatment 20 nail dystrophy primaquine 15mg on line, with a short break between halves medications 4h2 buy 15mg primaquine mastercard. Men and women participate in both games at all levels medications prolonged qt buy primaquine 15mg mastercard, including the Olympic Games and world championship/Cup medicine overdose order 15mg primaquine otc. Although it might be confusing to the traditionalists in Australia, we will refer to the game as football. A professional domestic competition exists for men (A League) and women (W League) and there is also a National Youth League. While hockey has lower participation rates and a lower profile, it is also played across all ages (from the modified-rules Rookey at school right through to masters level) and performance levels (recreational to international). At lower levels it exists as a seasonal fixture, though the Australian Hockey League plays several shorter formats. In some years the state teams play each other in a four week home-and-away season culminating in a finals week. In other years, they play a two-week tournament that simulates the Olympic competition schedule. Training With games played in seasons, training varies between the off-season, the pre-season and competition itself. The time and duration of the three parts of the season vary depending on the level of play. As in the other field-based team games covered in this book, preseason training in both hockey and football involves general conditioning work, weight training and skill practice. Concentration on skills and match practice will increase as the season approaches. During the season, two to four training sessions are generally scheduled between matches. Mid-week sessions involve lengthy match practice, and the training load gradually eases towards the end of the week to prepare for the next match. Players at the elite level who play in a number of competition formats, or move between a number of competitions (domestic leagues, national team representation and even a professional contract with an overseas team), may find it difficult to juggle their conditioning work between competition schedules. National team representation usually involves specialised training camps, often before a major tournament, in which daily training sessions are the norm. Competition Depending whether football or hockey is played as a seasonal or tournament fixture, the interval between games may vary from a day to a week. Each match of hockey or football is a fast game with bursts of intensive play interspersed by light activity. While rules restrict tackling and body contact, players in both games can have significant amounts of physical contact, with the potential for contact injuries. Time-andmotion studies of football have determined that the average distance covered in a match by national and international players varies with position and playing style. However, midfielders typically cover 9 to 11 km per match, compared with 8 to 9 km for the outfielders. Only about 10 per cent, or around 2 km, of this distance is covered at a sprint pace, a quarter is covered at walking speeds, and around half at jogging or cruising pace. Even when such studies are available, it must be borne in mind that information about player distances and speeds underestimates some of the true challenges of these sports. After all, the energy costs of running are increased when a player is required to accelerate, decelerate, change direction, run at an angle, or handle the ball. In fact, each player in a football match is involved in over 1000 discrete activities, with a change in activity occurring every 5­6 sec. The typical movement pattern requires the player to be able to run every 30 sec, with a 15-m sprint every 90 sec and a rest period lasting about 3 sec every couple of minutes. Clearly, this is fatiguing, since both the total distance covered and the time spent in high-intensity activities decrease in the second half of matches. Generally, football and hockey players rely on anaerobic fuel sources, with contributions from aerobic energy during the recovery between bursts. As well as drawing heavily on muscle-fuel stores, games played under hot conditions may leave players dehydrated. Players vary widely in body size, and differences in physical characteristics may not so much limit performance as determine position on the field or style of play. While most players tend to be well muscled regardless of height or weight, a low body-fat level is also an advantage for speed and agility. Over the past decade, there has been a strong trend towards lower body-fat levels in elite players of both sexes.

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It is empirical information about an activity and a world that does not fit with a modern paradigm medicine 3d printing primaquine 15 mg for sale. They have a well-developed social conscience symptoms gallstones cheap primaquine 15 mg visa, an interest in selfactualization and spirituality medications for ibs discount 15mg primaquine free shipping, and are likely to treatment uveitis buy 15mg primaquine with mastercard utilize alternative medicines. These methods included 1) participant-observation and experiential participation, 2) in-depth, qualitative interviews, and 3) examination of written documents (in this case, popularpress books that are available to, and read by, neo-shamanic participants). To ensure credibility of my ethnographic data, I sought prolonged engagement so I might get past the ideal representations of neo-shamanism and identify the underlying, more real components of it, and opted to engage in the extra-material, commonly referred to as 8 As discussed in Chapter I, Weber (1946) suggested that modernity disenchanted the world, i. Neo-shamanism, ostensibly based on traditional (premodern) shamanism, rests on the premise of an enchanted world. My decision to employ multiple methods provided triangulation by offering a variety of viewpoints from different perspectives. The pilot investigation for this research project took place over 20 months, from November 2003 to July 2005, while I studied for my comprehensive exams. During the pilot phase, I read as many popular books on shamanism as I could find (approximately 53 books ­ see Appendix B for a complete list of these books), attended and participated in four weekend workshops about neo-shamanism, and had six healing sessions with a variety of neo-shamanic practitioners. I conducted interviews with four neo-shamanic practitioners and seven of their clients. Lastly, I administered a small "quick and dirty" survey about the use of alternative medicine and knowledge of neo-shamanism in a few local spots: a business class at a local college, a public transportation stop, and an office for a health care organization, just to get a feel for the local population in the geographic area of my research. The main fieldwork for this research took place from August 2005 ­ November 2008 (a period of 39 months). During that time I participated in neo-shamanic activities as opportunities arose, such as group workshops, neo-shamanic drum circles, and fire ceremonies. In addition, I committed myself to a daily neo-shamanic journey practice so I might learn the skill of shamanic journeying as it was practiced by my informants. I 65 also conducted a series of qualitative interviews with both practitioners of and participants in neo-shamanic activities (August 2007 ­ August 2008). While in the field, I attended four beginner and seven advanced weekend workshops on neo-shamanism. I took two 8-week classes about neoshamanism, one taught by a woman trained by the Foundation for Shamanic Studies, and one by a husband and wife team trained by the Four Winds Society. During this time I also participated in four different neo-shamanic drum circles that met twice a month for time periods ranging from 4 to 12 months. In each group setting, I collected data through participant-observation, experiential participation, and direct dialogue with participants. Demographic characteristics were compiled through observation (such as noting the gender, ethnicity, and approximate age of participants) combined with direct inquiry (for specific information such as education and profession). Thorough field notes were completed following each group activity, and these detailed my general observations, notable verbatim comments, and any personal, experiential data that emerged. Any supplemental materials, such as handouts, were kept as part of my field notes. I met with my key informants on average every other week for the duration of this research project to discuss the information I was learning, my experiences, and their practices. As an apprentice, I was trained in certain shamanic techniques and given greater instruction than I would have been able to glean through workshops or individual healing sessions. I also had a total of seven healing sessions with practitioners trained by either the Foundation for Shamanic Studies or the Four Winds Society. All apprenticeship meetings and individual healing sessions were recorded in extensive field notes. I was first introduced to the importance of personally learning how to undertake the neo-shamanic journey in November 2003 when I started the pilot study for this research. What started as an early, periodic exploration into journeying, ultimately became a daily practice of meditation and neo-shamanic journeys while immersed in fieldwork. The intent of this was to better situate myself to understand the more advanced experience of the neo-shamanic practitioners, familiarize myself with the images and experiences detailed in shamanic workshops, and enable me to participate fully in more advanced group activities (such as fire and drum circles).

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