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While these data do not allow us to allergy treatment prescription discount 15 mg aristocort with mastercard determine whether general aggression predicts aggression on the field allergy friendly restaurants cheap 15 mg aristocort with amex, a relationship between the two scales is clear allergy medicine allegra buy generic aristocort 15 mg on line. Males prone to allergy forecast lincoln ne generic aristocort 15 mg with amex general aggressive behavior were far more likely to agree that winning was more important than good sportsmanship (64 percent vs. Additionally, as we do not have a nationally representative sample of non-athletes responding to these questions, we do not know if the rates of off-field aggression for student-athletes is any higher or lower than their non-athlete peers. At least 50 percent of college student sexual assaults are associated with alcohol use. The high-profile nature of the student-athlete role, coupled with the pressure to serve as role models, may in part explain this higher rate of regrettable actions. However, the higher rates of memory loss may indicate higher rates of excessive drinking among the student-athlete population. The influence of alcohol the other statistic that bears further consideration is that more than one in 10 students overall reported engaging in unprotected sex related to alcohol consumption, and that this number jumped to nearly one in five among male student-athletes. Additionally, student-athletes and non-athletes attributed alcohol consumption to incidences of physical violence and sex without consent, reinforcing the role alcohol can play in interpersonal violence. The accompanying table contrasts rates of sexual violence by sex and compares student-athletes with non-athlete populations. Done something you later regretted Forgot where you were/what you did Got in trouble with the police Had sex without giving consent Had sex without getting consent Had unprotected sex Physically injured self Physically injured another person Seriously considered suicide Athlete Males Non-athlete Females Athlete Non-athlete 33% 32% 6% 2% 1% 19% 16% 5% 1% 27% 27% 5% 1% 1% 13% 15% 3% 2% 33% 30% 3% 2% 0% 14% 14% 2% 1% 28% 24% 3% 2% 0% 12% 13% 1% 1% Percentages represent the percent of respondents in each group that answered "yes" to each survey item. For example, of the nearly 5,500 male student-athletes who reported that they consume alcohol, 24 percent reported that they had had unprotected sex as a consequence of drinking. Sexually touched without consent Sexual penetration attempted without consent Sexually penetrated without consent Sexually abusive relationship *p<. It is important to note that among both male and female student-athletes, those who indicated experiences of sexual assault within the past 12 months were three times more likely to have had recent suicidal thoughts than those who did not (13 percent vs. The 1999 Alfred University hazing study of college athletics shed light on this topic when it revealed that upon joining their team, more than two-thirds of college student-athletes had experienced humiliating hazing, and half were required to participate in alcohol-related hazing. The prevalence of hazing in sport ­ despite harsher penalties and intensive prevention efforts ­ has been attributed in part to group-think and masculinity in sport. Athletics teams are like a family and become extremely close, allowing for forgiveness or ignorance of negative situations. Student-athletes are especially vulnerable to groupthink when they are isolated from outside opinions, when they are in homogenous groups, when they are expected to be obedient to "superiors," and when there are no clear rules for decision-making. Masculinity can also play a role in hazing, as the definition of being a "real man" can encourage hazing as a practice to prove that one can be physically and emotionally tough. To understand the mental health implications of sexual assault, the mental health responses of participants who indicated experiencing any sort of sexual assault (touched, attempted penetration, penetrated without consent) within the past 12 months were compared with those who had not experienced any of these conditions. The data revealed that for both athletes and non-athletes, males and females who self-reported experiences of sexual assault were significantly more likely to experience hopelessness, mental exhaustion, depression or suicidal thoughts; struggle academically; find it hard to handle intimate relationships; and experience sleep issues. Felt hopeless within last 30 days Felt exhausted (not from activity) within last 30 days Felt so depressed it was hard to function within last 30 days Seriously considered suicide within last 12 months Diagnosed with depression within last 12 months Difficult to handle academics within last 12 months Hard to handle intimate relationships within last 12 months Sleep issues within last 12 months *p<. Such discouraging data reinforce the need for continued anti-hazing programming for student-athletes, in addition to programming tailored specifically for coaches who may be able to prevent such actions at the outset. An Indiana State University study in 2011 defined cyberbullying as using technology, such as social networking, text messaging or instant messaging, to harass others with harmful text or images or intentionally isolate another from a social group. The study found that almost 22 percent of college students reported being cyberbullied, 38 percent of students knew someone who had been cyberbullied, and almost 9 percent reported cyberbullying someone else. The rise in cyberbullying is not limited to college students, and has received increased attention and in some cases local and state-level law adoption designed to mitigate this behavior among the K-12 population. Among the student-athlete population, concerns about cyberbullying are not limited to peer-to-peer interactions. While many reported positive interactions, some also noted receiving negative or threatening messages. Although approximately 80 percent of student-athletes noted that their coaches or others in athletics talk to them about responsible use of social media, departments may also want to consider how to help student-athletes address negative or threatening messages from fans. Hazing and bullying, both in traditional forms and online, exist in the absence of strong leadership and direction, when groups are allowed to operate in secrecy and without supervision. These groups are more likely to deviate from social norms of conduct when coaches and administrators take a "hands-off" position, and when there are not clear policies or they are not consistently enforced. While many would turn to teammates or coaches, parents were the most consistent first choice across the sample.

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Probable Implementers Middle and high school administration across the United States wishing to allergy shots versus medication buy aristocort 15 mg lowest price reform or reorganize their schools to allergy treatment children buy aristocort 4mg with amex improve school climate and student performance allergy forecast fairfield ct aristocort 15 mg mastercard. Funding Interested schools may contact a Talent Development Secondary regional manager to allergy medicine and mucinex best aristocort 10 mg learn about costs associated with working with the Talent Development Secondary team and to set up the model in their school. Implementation Detail Program Design the Talent Development Secondary model prescribes comprehensive reform and school-wide reorganization to improve student performance in school. Central to the model are small learning communities in which students in a school are grouped together and take classes together with a set of teachers. Teachers in each small learning community share a common planning period and receive professional development. The Talent Development Secondary model also emphasizes extra assistance to help students catch up to their expected grade level performance. Staffing Talent Development Secondary staff work together with school staff to reform the school and offer ongoing implementation assistance. Curriculum the high school Talent Development Secondary model includes a Ninth Grade Success Academy, which is a small learning community comprising only 9th grade students that includes a freshman seminar and catch-up courses in math and English. Beyond 9th grade, schools are organized into small learning communities centered on a common career theme. Teachers in small learning communities receive professional development and share a common planning period, allowing for interdisciplinary teacher teams. The middle school Talent Development Secondary model also uses a small learning community design, with teachers across disciplines sharing a common planning period. The model emphasizes growth in math, literacy, science, and history skills and offers opportunities for middle school youth to explore career options. Issues to Consider the above studies found evidence that the Talent Development Secondary model impacts student behavior (attendance) and performance (credits earned, test scores, and promotion rates). One issue to note is that these studies measure multiple outcomes, which increases the possibility that a positive outcome is found by chance. Additionally, these studies relied on matched schools for comparison, which could potentially bias the positive findings, if matched school students are systematically different in unknown ways that affect the study outcomes. The studies found no differences between intervention students and matched students on variables researchers were able to observe, but differences might exist in student characteristics or school characteristics, such as teacher motivation or school climate, that researchers did not measure or were not able to observe. Some of the studies attempted to strengthen the validity of their findings by using the averages across three years of - 499 - students to correct for year-to-year variation in student outcomes. However, Herlihy and Kemple (2004) compared the three-year "pre-intervention" average to single-year intervention cohorts; this study found only two significant results in one cohort year out of multiple outcomes tested across multiple years. Example Sites the Talent Development Secondary model has been implemented in high schools and middle schools in 15 states. Contact Information Maxine Wood Chief Operating Officer Talent Development Secondary Phone: 410-516-6423 Email: mwood@csos. The website includes an overview of the high school and middle school programs, as well as information for contacting a regional manager to learn more about partnering with Talent Development Secondary. The program aims to improve reading skills among kindergarten and first-grade students who are struggling in this area through one-on-one instruction. In the classroom setting, teachers focus on one struggling student at a time, providing one-on-one instruction to the target for several weeks before moving on to work with another struggling student. Across the seven schools, 264 students in 43 kindergarten and first-grade classrooms participated in the evaluation. Schools within each district were paired based on school size, racial and ethnic composition, participation in Reading First (another program aimed at improving reading among struggling students), and percentage of students eligible for reduced-price lunch. Students were eligible to participate in the evaluation if they were not diagnosed with a severe disability and if they spoke some conversational English. First, teachers assessed reading skills using all state- and district-mandated assessments of emergent reading skills. The teacher also rated whether the student was benefiting from regular classroom instruction and whether the student was below, at, or above grade level.

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In a 1993 study allergy forecast lancaster pa buy 15mg aristocort mastercard, Widaman allergy shots without insurance aristocort 10 mg mastercard, Stacy xyzal allergy testing aristocort 40 mg line, and Borthwick-Duffy applied multitrait/multimethod matrix procedures to allergy testing accuracy discount 40mg aristocort overnight delivery the identification of major domains of adaptive behavior. The participants for this study were 157 persons with moderate, severe, and profound mental retardation. The authors found clear evidence for the existence of four major domains: cognitive competence, social competence, social maladaptation, and personal maladaptation. These results suggest that, when assessing individuals with mental retardation, measures of at least these four domains would be desirable. Fortunately, the majority of adaptive Uses of Adaptive Behavior Scales Traditionally, adaptive behavior scales have been considered central to the diagnosis of mental retardation (DeStefano & Thompson, 1990). Although this use is circumscribed, it is an important one given the epidemiology of mental retardation and the importance of accurate diagnosis that includes a comprehensive assessment of adaptive functioning. Perhaps as importantly, as the counterpoint of behavior problem scales, adaptive behavior scales hold unique potential for intervention design based on assessment results. That is, adaptive behavior scales serve a valuable function for the clinician in that they pinpoint specific skills that a child has not acquired, which then may serve as the focus of treatment efforts. Adaptive behavior scales are particularly useful in educational settings where their results can be integrated with the objectives of individualized educational plans (IePs). For instance, adaptive behavior scales can be used to identify social skills and other target behaviors for classroom intervention planning. Several scales possessed local or regional norms, and many were created locally and interpreted informally. Unfortunately, many of these scales were used for making normreferenced decisions such as determining whether or not a child had adaptive behavior deficits that were significant enough to warrant the diagnosis of mental retardation. Among the adaptive behavior assessment questions most frequently posed by psychologists are the following: 1. Does the child have adaptive behavior deficits that are significant enough to warrant the diagnosis of mental retardation? Questions 2 and 3 are less likely to require norm referencing, although it may still be of some benefit. In order to answer these questions, the clinician could make intraindividual comparisons and/or gauge deficits on the basis of how the deficits impair adaptation to particular environments. This approach stood in stark contrast to the popularity at the time of using direct measures of child behavior, such as intelligence tests. Modern adaptive behavior scales such as the Vineland-2 (Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005) and Scales of Independent Behavior-revised (Bruininks, Woodcock, Weatherman, & Hill, 1996) still emphasize the use of parents as informants. For most scales in which parents serve as informants, maternal reports are used nearly exclusively for item development, scaling, and norming. Although fathers are used less frequently, there are no systematic data currently available that clarify the differences between mothers and fathers as informants regarding adaptive behavior. Domains that are commonly included on parent scales of adaptive behavior, such as toileting, bathing, dressing, budgeting, and health care are impractical for teachers. Likewise, parents have difficulty reporting on functional academics in reading, writing, calculation, and some vocational skills. Caregivers may include psychiatric aides in hospitals, nurses, mental health assistants, nannies, grandparents, teacher aides, work supervisors, or others who have sustained nearly daily contact with a child or adolescent. These individuals may, in some circumstances, fulfill parent or teacher roles and therefore may be competent primary or secondary informants for such scales. In other words, the child may be tested directly in order to assess adaptive behavior, although this is a less popular option with many clinicians. Perhaps one reason for its lack of popularity is a dearth of available instruments. As is the case with behavior rating scales, there is often a high level of disagreement between the informants who give information or adaptive behavior scales. Parents and teachers have been found to generally agree on overall adaptive behavior estimates. However, they may disagree considerably at the scale or domain levels (Shaw, Hammer, & Leland, 1991). Self- and caregiver reports have been found to sometimes agree on adaptive behavior ratings but to disagree considerably on ratings of maladaptive behavior (Voelker et al. Factors such as child age and length of involvement in a treatment program may also affect agreement between informants (see Shaw et al. The checklist format is equivalent to the approach used for parent or teacher ratings of behavior problems discussed in previous chapters.

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Studies have shown that despite the diversity of ethnicity allergy forecast traverse city buy aristocort 15 mg low price, socioeconomic status allergy symptoms hay fever purchase 4 mg aristocort free shipping, geographic background and even sexual orientation allergy testing irvine purchase aristocort 15 mg visa, coaches allergy forecast usa order aristocort 40 mg visa, administrators and student-athletes nonetheless often exhibit heterosexist and homophobic attitudes. One study of five Division I campuses in fact explored how athletics teams respond to diversity, including race, gender, socioeconomic level, geographic region and sexual orientation. The authors noted that "questions about sexual orientation brought about the most highly charged Campus climate within athletics Studies have shown that despite the diversity of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographic background and even sexual orientation, coaches, administrators and student-athletes nonetheless often exhibit heterosexist and homophobic attitudes. The overall message from the findings was that hostility toward gay men and lesbians exists on nearly all teams and at all the case study sites. These negative experiences with climate adversely influence their athletics identities and reports of academic success. Thirty years of research underscore the disproportionately higher rates of depressive symptoms, substance use/abuse, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among queer-spectrum and trans-spectrum youth. Other studies found that sexual-minority college students were more likely to experience and witness incivility (disrespectful behaviors) and hostility (overt violence), and personal incivility and witnessing hostility were associated with greater odds of problematic drinking. Among college students, extant studies also indicate that sexual minorities are at increased risk for poorer mental health, including suicide attempts. Overall, "in-house" harassment, or harassment experienced at practice or similar athletics-related events, whether intentional or not, is the most prevalent kind experienced by our respondents. It follows, therefore, that athletics departments have the power to improve the collegiate experiences of all student-athletes through cooperation with athletics personnel, studentathletes and faculty members at their institutions. We propose the following best practices for creating positive campus climates for queer-spectrum and trans-spectrum student-athletes. First, we encourage the use of language that extends beyond the binaries in all of the following recommended potential best practices. Many individuals do not fit the socially constructed definitions of gender identity, sexual identity and gender expression. Language instills and reinforces cultural values, thereby helping to maintain social hierarchies. While definitions facilitate discussion and the sharing of information, terminology remains subject to both cultural contexts and individual interpretation. As a result, the terminology that people use to describe themselves and their communities is often not universally accepted by everyone within these communities. There are multiple venues where intercollegiate athletics can offer a visible and supportive presence. Individuals will be more likely to be open about their sexual identity or gender identity when they know that the institution is supportive. When individuals do not have to expend energy hiding aspects of their identity, they are able to focus on team and individual goals. If your institution does not have a nondiscrimination policy inclusive of actual or perceived sexual identity, gender identity, and gender expression, you can work with senior administrators to adopt one. If the institution does offer health insurance coverage, "gross up" wages for employees who enroll for these benefits to cover the added tax burden from the imputed value of the benefit that appears as income for the employee. For example: Application for admission Application for housing Student health intake form · Provide appropriate health care for transgender student-athletes. Further, more students are "coming out" as transgender in intercollegiate athletics. Although this growing population has unique needs related to physical and mental health care, most colleges and universities offer little or no support for this population. A report titled, "On the Team: Equal Opportunity for Transgender Student-Athletes," argued that in this environment, the lack of a national standard is unfair both to transgender students and to all student-athletes. The report divides its recommendations for colleges into two categories of transgender students: those who are undergoing hormone treatments and those who are not, and the report notes that many people who identify as transgender do not take medical steps. The policy is aimed at allowing student-athletes to participate in competition in accordance with their gender identity while maintaining the relative balance of competitive equity among sports teams. Further recommendations for future research and promising best practices are offered in recent studies by Beemyn and Rankin (2011), Marine (2011) and Rankin et al. Other recommended resources include the Campus Pride Friendly Campus Index. Susan Rankin is a research associate in the Center for the Study of Higher Education and associate professor of education in the College Student Affairs Program at Pennsylvania State University.

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Although the results of the evaluation do tend to allergy treatment products buy 4mg aristocort with mastercard favor the program allergy dallas cheap 40 mg aristocort with amex, it is difficult to allergy drugs buy 15 mg aristocort overnight delivery assess the size of the impact allergy forecast ontario best 15 mg aristocort. There is some evidence of effects from the program, but the effects were measured only until the end of the school year. Also, evidence suggests that there were changes in knowledge and intentions among Program Participants but fewer changes in actual behaviors, such as the onset of sexual intercourse. Example Sites Colorado; San Diego - 207 - Contact Information For a preview of or to purchase program materials, contact: Discovery Education info@unitedlearning. Last Reviewed April 2004 Go Grrrls Program Info Outcome Areas Healthy and Safe Children Indicators Children not experiencing anxiety or mood disorders, such as depression Children experiencing good physical health Topic Areas Age of Child Middle Childhood (9-12) Adolescence (13-18) - 208 - Type of Setting Out of School Time Type of Service Youth Development Type of Outcome Addressed Mental Health Evidence Level Promising Program Overview Go Grrrls is a program designed to promote healthy psychosocial development in female adolescents. The program has been delivered to girls in grades six through nine and is expected to occur as a series of 12 sessions held outside of traditional school hours. The sessions include didactic instruction, class discussion, group exercises, completion of worksheets, role-playing, and weekly journal assignments. The Go Grrrls program materials include a Go Grrrls curriculum guide for group leaders and a Go Grrrls workbook for use by group attendees. In addition, the program developers offer one-day trainings for group leaders on topics such as an introduction to Go Grrrls and female adolescent development, being a group leader, and advanced topics related to leading a Go Grrrls group. Evaluation Methods LeCroy (2004) evaluated the effectiveness of the Go Grrrls program in promoting healthy psychosocial development among 118 adolescent females attending a middle school in a semi-urban location in Arizona. Females were recruited through parent orientation sessions held at their school over the summer. A total of 118 female middle school students and their parents consented to participate in the study. Fifty-nine girls were randomly assigned to participate in the Go Grrrls program, and 59 were randomly assigned to serve as control study participants. About 62 percent of the girls were Caucasian, about 14 percent were Hispanic, about 33 percent were Native American, and less than 2 percent were African-American. About 51 percent of the girls lived in single-parent homes, and about 37 percent received free lunch at school. There were no differences in demographic variables between the control group of girls and the Go Grrrls program group before the intervention began. The co-leaders were supervised weekly through separate small group meetings, lasting 30 to 60 minutes, to ensure that the curriculum was delivered similarly across groups. All girls participating in the study completed selfreport questionnaires just prior to and just after the Go Grrrls program 12-week series. Receiving 75 percent of sessions was - 209 - considered sufficient exposure to the program to detect an effect, but the study author does not note a specific threshold used to include girls in the analysis. Key Evaluation Findings LeCroy (2004) found that, compared with girls in the control group, girls who completed the Go Grrrls program showed significantly greater improvement (at p <. Probable Implementers Community organizations, including schools, with a commitment to healthy female development. Funding the authors received funding from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Implementation Detail Program Design the program is designed as an out-of-school-time group series. Female adolescents attend group sessions of about 8-10 adolescent females, led by two adult female co-leaders. Sessions occur over 12 weeks and last one hour per week, with girls completing weekly journal assignments between sessions. Curriculum the curriculum covers six major topics that build on each other over the course of 12 weeks. Each week, girls receive didactic instruction and engage in role-plays, exercises, group discussion, and journal assignments. Establishing independence - teaches problem-solving skills and focuses on mature, independent thinking. Making and keeping friends - encourages development of meaningful friendships and teaches girls how to use friendships for support and well-being. When it all seems like too much - teaches girls how to recognize when situations are too much to handle alone and how to find available resources, such as helpful peers or hotlines and crisis centers. Planning for the future - teaches girls to establish educational, vocational, and other goals. In addition, many of the scales used to assess female outcomes were developed by LeCroy, and the validity of these scales has not been well established.

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